The 7.92×57mm Mauser (designated as the 8mm Mauser or 8×57mm by the SAAMI  and 8 × 57 IS by the C.I.P.) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge. The 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge was adopted by the German Empire in 1905, and was the German service cartridge in both World Wars. In its day, the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge was one of the world’s most popular military cartridges. In the 21st century it is still a popular sport and hunting cartridge that is factory-produced in Europe and the United States.
The parent cartridge on which the 7.92×57mm Mauser is based was adopted by Germany in 1888 as the Patrone 88 (cartridge 88) or M/88(along with the Gewehr 1888 service rifle). The M/88 cartridge was loaded with a relatively heavy 14.6 grams (225 gr) round-nosed ball cartridge with a diameter of 8.08 mm (0.318 in) and was designed by the GermanGewehr-Prüfungskommission (G.P.K.) (Rifle Testing Commission).
German government driven efforts to improve the performance of the military M/88 ammunition and the service arms in which the M/88 was used resulted in the design by the Gewehr-Prüfungskommission and adaptation in 1905 of the dimensionally redesigned 7.92×57mm Mauser chambering. Besides the chambering, the bore (designated as “S-bore”) was also dimensionally redesigned. The 1905 pattern 7.92×57mm MauserS Patrone (S ball cartridge) was loaded with a lighter 9.9 grams (153 gr), pointed Spitzgeschoß (spitzer bullet) of 8.2 mm (0.323 in) diameter and more powerful double-base (based on nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin) smokeless powder. With the improved ballistic coefficient of the new spitzer bullet, the 1905 pattern cartridge had an improved maximum effective range and a flatter trajectory, and was therefore less critical of range estimation compared to the M/88 cartridge.
The rimless cartridge cases have been used as parent case for several other necked down and necked up cartridges and a rimmed variant.